# Forgetting (Memory Model Answers) (Paper 1 Model Answers)

### Read the item and then answer the questions that follow.

### An experiment was carried out to test the effects of learning similar and dissimilar information on participants’ ability to remember.

### In **Stage 1** of the experiment, 10 participants in **Group A**, the ‘similar’ condition, were given a list of 20 place names in the UK. They were given two minutes to learn the list. 10 different participants in **Group B**, the ‘dissimilar’ condition, were given the same list of 20 place names in the UK. They were also given two minutes to learn the list.

### In **Stage 2** of the experiment, participants in **Group A** were given a different list of 20 more place names in the UK, and were given a further two minutes to learn it. Participants in **Group B** were given a list of 20 boys’ names, and were given a further two minutes to learn it.

### In **Stage 3** of the experiment, all participants were given five minutes to recall as many of the 20 place names in the UK, from the list in **Stage 1**, as they could. The raw data from the two groups is below.

###
(a) What is the most appropriate measure of central tendency for calculating the average of the scores, from the table, in each of the **two** groups? Justify your answer. ( 2 marks)

**Model Answer**

The most sensitive method for calculating the central tendency of a dataset is the mean. This is because the mean takes into account all the scores in the dataset, providing a comprehensive representation of the overall average.

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(b) Calculate the measure of central tendency you have identified in your answer to **part (a)** for **Group A** and **Group B.** Show your calculations for each group. ( 4 marks)

**Model Answer**

The mean was accurately calculated for both conditions. In Group A, the mean was 5.6, while in Group B, the mean was 12.5. The calculations for both groups involved summing up the scores in each condition and dividing them by the total number of scores, which was 10. These calculations ensured an accurate representation of the average scores in each group.

### (c) In **Stage 3** of the experiment, several participants in **Group A**, the ‘similar’ condition, recalled words from the **Stage 2** list rather than the **Stage 1** list.

### Use your knowledge of forgetting to explain why this may have occurred. ( 2 marks)

**Model Answer**

The decrease in memory performance observed in the second condition can be attributed to retroactive interference. This occurs because the material presented in both conditions is similar. Retroactive interference refers to the phenomenon where newly learned information disrupts the recall or retention of previously learned information. In this case, the similarity between the material presented in both conditions creates interference, making it more challenging for participants to accurately recall the information from the first condition.