The basal ganglia are a group of nuclei located deep within the cerebral hemispheres of the brain. They play a crucial role in various functions, including motor control, cognition, and emotion. The basal ganglia are involved in facilitating voluntary movements, procedural learning, and the regulation of muscle tone.
Key components of the basal ganglia include the striatum (comprised of the caudate nucleus and putamen), the globus pallidus, the subthalamic nucleus, and the substantia nigra. Dysfunctions in the basal ganglia are associated with several neurological disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and various movement disorders.